А. І. Неклеса
РЕАЛІЗАЦІЯ НОВОВВЕДЕНЬ У ХЛІБОПЕКАРСЬКИХ ПІДПРИЄМСТВАХ
Статтю присвячено формуванню стратегії інновацій хлібопекарських підприємств. Розглядається прояв трьох фаз інноваційного процесу в умовах хлібопекарської промисловості. Висвітлюється інноваційний характер реінжинірингу в хлібопекарській промисловості. Пропонуються інноваційні стратегії для використання. За результатами дослідження при розробці інноваційної стратегії хлібопекарських підприємств рекомендуються методичні положення для використання.
BRINGING INNOVATIONS TO BAKERIES
Any innovation is usually based on scientific achievements. It is highly likely to acquire the up-to-date scientific knowledge while carrying out fundamental research funded by government.
The requirement for government support accounts for the experience of foreign countries. Any model of market economy considers the government role. It is relevant to government support as well as promoting the state-of-the-art equipment design and installation.
It argues that providing the advanced scientific and technological facilities for implementing the effective technological systems and processes engaged in adopting innovations at bakeries has been suggested as a crucial step in order to use an external system of scientific and technical development.
The strategy of external technological resources encouraging has been recommended in keeping with peculiarities of bakeries such as lack of scientific departments as well as limited engineering potential and investment.
We suppose that the innovation process for bread baking industry is characterized by three stages: designing, developing as well as introducing the innovations. It has been explained by the fact that innovations define the future level of bakery development.
The first stage involves scientific research, research and engineering activities as well as research production management. The second one includes batch production and sales. The third stage is characterized by commercial use at bakeries.
It has been proposed to analyze the innovative character considering two facets:
According to the first one, a new business process has appeared. This process is likely to affect significantly the future innovations in other production systems of bakery (production facilities upscaling, warehouse building, refrigeration plants purchasing, new management units and information centers forming etc.);
According to the second one, reengineering has been defined as a method of innovation activity as well as a type of innovation strategy. The innovation strategy differs from other strategies for bakeries and assists in achieving goals most effectively (economic growth, for instance).
We recommend implementing the following innovation strategies for bakeries:
— creating new types of bread, flour-based products, pastry, cookies, gingerbread;
— the latest technologies of production;
— modern marketing approaches;
— advanced management techniques (corporate culture, information systems, consulting);
— new production methods (flexible machine and manpower loading charts);
— new resource types (leaven).
According to appropriate qualification, the above-mentioned strategies may be divided into:
— product (portfolio) or business strategies intended to create innovative products and technologies;
— effective strategies (science and technology, marketing);
— resource strategies (financial, labor force, information, material and technological);
— management strategies (management structures).
At the same time, peculiarities of bakeries enable to develop general strategies which may be divided into three intensive growth development strategies.
The first strategy. In this case, a bakery tends to take the lion's market share offering a common traditional range of products. The innovation factor is quite little.
The second strategy. A bakery breaks into a new market using marketing innovations.
The third strategy. A bakery develops new products basing on product innovations.
It has been recommended describing the above-mentioned strategies by means of the Ansoff Matrix. The innovation strategies described are intended to develop and fulfill the potential of bakeries in keeping with environmental changes.
Innovation activities in bread baking industry have to be positively influenced by a number of managerial, economic, social and legal conditions:
— creating the Association which consists of scientific and design organizations, engineering plants;
— establishing the innovation framework of market-oriented scientific achievements (innovations) indicating a manufacturer, a plant, delivery terms, erection terms and conditions, reference to foreign substitutes (if mentioned) or other available substitutes;
— government support of science and innovation sphere (bread baling industry);
— creating integrated formations which affect the development of innovation process. For instance, innovation and consultation centers, technoparks etc.;
— innovation priorities as well as scientific and technological development in bread baking industry are formed basing on long-term strategies for population supporting capacity or nutrition facilitating due to broad range of quality flour-based products or satisfying the human physiological needs.
It can be concluded that upscaling production facilities in bread baking industry may be efficient only on the basis of innovations.
According to the results of research we recommend using the following methodology statements to design innovation strategies of bakeries (for instance, creating a new type of flour-based products):
— conducting marketing research on new types of products;
— carrying out scientific research work on innovations;
— laboratory experiments;
— finding recipes of products;
— developing technologies;
— designing equipment for new products;
— obtaining documents on licensing, patenting;
— calculating efficiency of investment project focusing on innovations.
№ 20 2016, стор. 68 - 72
Кількість переглядів: 636